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Transport and logistics sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan





Over the past 10 years, about 30 billion USA dollars has been invested in the development of the transport industry. More than 2 thousand km of Railways were built 19,5 thousand km of roads were reconstructed, port capacities for the Caspian sea up to 26 million tons were increased, 15 airports (runways) were reconstructed.

There are 11 international transport corridors in the country, including 5 rail and 6 road corridors. 5 international transport corridors pass through the territory of Kazakhstan: 

- Northern and southern corridors of the TRANS-Asian railway.

North: Western Europe-China,Korea, Japan through Russia and Kazakhstan (Dostyk-Astana-Petropavlovsk).

- South: South-East Europe-China-South-East Asia through Turkey, Iran, CA countries and Kazakhstan (Dostyk-Saryagash section).

- Central Asian corridor. Central Asia –Russia and EU countries (section on Kazakhstan Saryagash –Arys –Kandagach –Ozinki ).

- North-South corridor. Northern Europe-Persian Gulf countries through Russia and Iran with the participation of Kazakhstan on the Aktau seaport section-Ural and Aktau –Atyrau regions).

- TRACECA. Eastern Europe-South Caucasus-Caspian sea-Central Asia.

A network of efficient transit transcontinental corridors and routes from China to Central Asia and the Persian Gulf countries has been formed.

Diversification of international transport corridors plays an important role in the development of the country's transport and logistics system. Already today, the terms of passage of goods and delivery of goods in transit through the territory of Kazakhstan is 13-15 days, which is 2 times faster than sea transport.

Meanwhile, Kazakhstan has introduced transport and logistics services with the opening of regular rail container lines China-Europe-China on 19 international routes from the main points of consolidation of cargo flows in China.

The volume of container transit traffic in the direction of China-EU-China increased to 201 thousand containers or 100 times (2011).

By 2020, it is planned to increase the volume in this direction to 800 thousand containers, and in General, including other areas to 2 million.

At present, the optimal framework of the railway line has been formed, which allows to transport transit cargo in the shortest possible time.

In 2014, the railway line Zhezkazgan-Beineu with a length of 1036 km was built, which allowed to reduce the distance from China to Europe by almost 1,200 km.Also, this line provided a direct railway "exit" from the East to the West of Kazakhstan and further to the Persian Gulf countries through the railway line "Uzen-Bolashak", and the transportation time was reduced by 1,5-2 days.

The line Arkalyk-Shubarkol, 214 km long, put into operation in 2015, reduced the distance of transportation from Central Kazakhstan to the Northern regions by an average of 550 km.

In order to eliminate bottlenecks and increase the capacity, the second track on the Shu-Almaty section (53 km) was completed, which reduced the transportation time on the specified section by 2 times.

In order to attract transit flows from China to Europe, Kazakhstan is working on the development of the TRANS-Caspian international transport route.

For this purpose, an international Association with the participation of railway, Maritime administrations and logistics operators has been established and operates.

The result of the coordinated work of the participants was the development of end-to-end competitive tariffs, approval of the technology of interaction between transport companies and the launch of container service "Nomad Express".

The completion of the construction of the Kars - Akhalkalaki railway section on the border between Azerbaijan, Turkey and Georgia gave an additional impetus to the development of the route.

In order to increase port capacity, in 2015 the construction of a new dry cargo terminal was completed in the port of Aktau, which allowed to increase the capacity of the port to 19,5 million tons.

Along with the development of infrastructure, Aktau port was introduced (in 2016). the new system of paperwork on the principle of "Single window", which reduced the process of cargo handling from 10-12 hours to an average of 4 hours.

Also, in order to ensure the non-transshipment shipment of transit cargo and the development of TRANS-Caspian multimodal transport to the Caspian sea, a project for the construction of a ferry complex in the port of Kuryk was implemented.

For the maintenance of trucks in August 2018 launched a car ferry terminal. Today, on the border with China, in order to develop free trade, the formation of the SEZ "Khorgos-Eastern gate" has been fully completed, where 79 participants have already been registered and production is being established.

The infrastructure of the SEZ, along with industrial and logistics zones, also includes a Dry port, which was launched in 2015 for the consolidation and distribution of goods in the East of the country.

In 2014, a joint logistics terminal with Chinese partners was established in the port of Lianyungang, which today is the main point of consolidation of cargo flows to/from Kazakhstan.

The dry port in technological connection with two railway crossings on the border with China, the Zhetygen-Korgas railway and the Western Europe-Western China highway and the involvement of competent major transport and logistics operators opened a new stage in the development of Eurasian transcontinental transport. At the initiative of the Head of State, the state Program "Nurly Zhol" has been developed and implemented, within the framework of which work is continuing to eliminate infrastructure restrictions.

According to the " ray " principle, projects of high-quality roads are implemented in the directions of Center-South, Center-East, Center-West, which will provide a through passage from South to North, from West to East.

In the current year as part of the 23 projects of the "Nurly Zhol" the construction and reconstruction simultaneously in all regions will be covered by 4,2 thousand km of roads. For the first time we have started such volumes of work.

As a result, in 2020, more than 90% of roads of national importance will be in good and satisfactory condition, and the share of roads of I and II technical categories will increase to 50%.

One of the breakthrough projects is the creation of the international transit corridor "Western Europe-Western China", which is the shortest road route to Europe, with a time of transportation of goods from 10 to 12 days.

Today, more and more popular among the population is gaining services for the carriage of passengers by air.

According to IATA, the growth of passenger traffic in the world was 5,9%. The volume of passenger traffic on regular flights increased by 5,7% to 3,8 billion passengers.

Last year, the most dynamically developed transportation in the Middle East region-10,8% and the market of the Asia-Pacific region, where passenger turnover increased by 8,9%.

In Kazakhstan, the Civil aviation industry also shows an annual 10% growth, including due to the expansion of the geography of flights and the attraction of transit passenger traffic (increased more than 20 times: from 20 thousand people in 2010 to 478 thousand people).

So passenger traffic on air transport in 2017 also reached a record figure (over the past 25 years).

The growth in the number of air passengers was 23%. At the same time, the number of transit passengers increased by 30%.

This was facilitated by initiatives within the framework of EXPO-2017, such as the "Open Sky Astana" project for foreign carriers and 72 - hour visa-free regime for Chinese citizens who used the services of Kazakh airlines for transit through Astana and Almaty.

The successful experience of the visa-free regime is planned to be used against the citizens of India and Iran.

One of the significant events of the past year in the field of civil aviation was the ICAO Audit.

Thus, on November 22-30, 2017, the ICAO Commission conducted an Audit on aviation security, which is a comprehensive audit of the airport security system-an expert assessment is carried out on 480 key issues.

As a result of the audit, the level of compliance with aviation security amounted to 83% or 21% progress compared to the Audit of 2009, which is 11% higher than the world average and brought Kazakhstan to the 2nd place after the countries of Europe and North America.

To ensure the attractiveness of air transit, the ground infrastructure of Kazakhstan's airports has been practically prepared.

The geography of international flights is also expanding due to the opening of new routes by both domestic and foreign airlines.

In General, the development of transit air transport is one of the key areas within the project management, and in 2020, up to 1,6 million transit passengers will be provided or 2,5 times increase.

The head of state in his 2018 Address also set the task of large-scale introduction of modern digital technologies in transport and logistics.

The Ministry for investment and development of the Republic of Kazakhstan is working on the introduction of modern technologies in the domestic transport and logistics system.

Systems are being introduced that will improve the management of transport and passenger flows, increase the safety of transport and increase the speed of movement.

Thus, within the framework of the multi-component project "Intelligent transport system", the integration of vehicles, infrastructure, users and information and communication technologies is carried out in stages.

In the road sector, a road asset management System is being implemented to optimize road life cycle costs by eliminating defects at an early stage.

In the field of aviation, paperless document management for air cargo e-freight and a system for collecting and processing data on air passengers are being introduced.

Today we can say with confidence that the transport industry of Kazakhstan has passed one of the historical stages of development.